Monday, July 19, 2010

Sparkplug Wires

The spark plug wires in your vehicle are designed to be strong and last for a long period of time. However, you should always keep an eye on the condition of the wires to make sure that your vehicle is receiving the correct amount of spark that it needs for proper functioning.

The wires are insulated and this is where the problems can occur. The insulation will keep the spark inside the engine and not outside where it can cause problems. Cracks in the insulation of the spark plug wires are an indication that the wires should be changed. A crack or break in the insulation will cause the spark to arc onto another metal area under your hood. The spark from the plugs will arc to these other areas and keep it from the engine where it belongs.

The cylinder that has a bad spark plug wire will receive a weak spark or in some cases, no spark. This will affect the way that your vehicle runs and you will notice that your car is running a bit rougher than normal. It will also affect the amount of fuel that your car is using. In some extreme cases, fuel can get into the exhaust system and affect the pollution control devices like the catalytic converter. Your spark plug wires that are arcing under the hood of your car can also be a dangerous situation if there is fuel in its vicinity.

Performing your own vehicle maintenance is a good way to ensure that your spark plug wires are thoroughly inspected. When it is time to change the spark plugs during a routine tune up, you should make sure that you give the spark plug wires a good inspection. This will save you a great deal of trouble down the road.

While you are under the hood of your car, begin at the distributor cap and follow the wire all the way back to the spark plug. Look for cracks and damage in the insulation of the spark plug wires. Turn the wires over and bend them slightly to expose any cracks that might not be visible on a first inspection. The part of the spark plug wires on the distributor end should be inspected as well for cracks and tears. Take the wire off of the spark plug to give the wires a good inspection. There may also be a burnt look to the wires that indicate damage as well.

Any damage that is found on your spark plug wires indicates that it is time to replace the wires. You will have to buy your wires in a set and they are usually pretty inexpensive to replace. Some wires may cost you more than others, but the savings that you will realize and the problems that are avoided make the higher cost on some wires very cost effective.

Performing routine maintenance on your vehicle, such as checking the spark plug wires, is an important part of making sure that your car is running as efficiently as possible. You can do most of these maintenance tasks on your own and save some money on auto repair bills. If you are not familiar with how to perform a tune up on your vehicle, there are many resources available to you online where you can learn how to give your car a tune up and take care of all the routine maintenance without having to set foot inside a repair shop.

Keeping your car running at its optimal performance will keep it running longer and also save you a great deal of money on fuel costs.

Ignition Coil

If you are an adult, chances are you own a car and drive it to work, the store, the shopping mall, grandma’s house, and many other places from day to day. Unless you are a mechanic or especially car minded, you probably do not think about all the processes that go into something as seemingly simple as starting your car up for all those long and short trips. In fact, probably the only time you think about the process of starting your car is in the rare and frustrating event that it doesn’t start up for you. Even if you don’t spend too much time thinking about how your car cranks, you probably should. Quite a bit of modern technology went into making the parts that start your car, and one of the main parts used in that process is the ignition coil.

Back before ignition coils were in common usage, cars started in what we today would see as a strange and alien way – they were started when the driver, standing outside, turned on the engine by turning a hand crank. Have you ever wondered why turning a car on is so often called “cranking the car?” Well, that is the reason. “Cranking the car” is one of the English language’s many antiquated terms that has happened to stick around long after actually manually cranking our cars fell by the wayside as a victim to newer and smarter technology.

Ignition coils, those handy devices that in part mean we no longer have to stand outside our cars and turn a hand crank when we are ready to drive to the corner store or shopping mall, are also called spark coils, because they help the power from the battery amplify into the thousands of volts of power that are needed to spark the spark plugs. The need for the ignition coil is simple. Car batteries only have 12 volts of power. (In fact, older car batteries may only have 6 volts.) But, a car’s spark plugs, the small devices that fit into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and cause the spark that lights the gasoline and causes internal combustion, need many thousands of volts of power in order to start (not crank, keep in mind) the car. The ignition coil’s job is to convert low voltage from the battery (remember, 12 or even as low as 6 volts) into those thousands of volts needed to start the car.

Even though ignition coils represent admittedly newer technology than those old hand cranks, they have been used in different ways in the past. Until recently, a car had only one ignition coil. That coil worked through a distributor, which, true to its name, distributed the volts amplified by the ignition coil to all the spark plugs. Newer car models though, eliminated the middle man so to speak, in that they eliminated the distributer. Instead, newer, distributor-less car models use many, much smaller ignition coils. These ignition coils server either one or two spark plugs and are electronically controlled. In modern cars, the ignition coils may be either remote mounted or placed on top of and in direct contact with the spark plug.

One important thing to know about modern ignition coils is that they put into motion the “wasted spark” system. When one ignition coil serves two spark plugs that single coil generates two sparks for each cycle it is powered. The only fuel that is ignited is the fuel in the cylinder that is nearing the end of its compression stroke. The other spark, then, is “wasted,” hence the name “wasted spark” system.

Distributor cap

The distributor cap is a critical device within you vehicle’s ignition system. Effectively, its purpose it to transfer the charge created by the rotating of the distributor shaft and the rest of the motor. The distributor cap takes that energy and uses it to power the engine’s cylinders at the appropriate time and order. As a critical portion of your ignition, it should be inspected whenever you’re having problems with the ignition, as well as on the pre-scheduled maintenance times, which can be found in your car’s manual. Distributor caps are pieces of your car that need to be fixed at certain times, and even if you find a problem in other components of the ignition system, there is a chance that your cap will need changing too.

hanging your distributor cap is a fairly easy job, and it can be done by somebody with even a low understanding of car parts or tool aptitude. It’s not as easy as unscrewing and re-screwing the cap, unfortunately, but it is a job that can be done with the most basic tool set, and one that can be completed in around an hour.

If you’re trying to check, remove or change your distributor cap (or the spark plugs), you’ll find it attached to any of the spark plug wires. These wires are located all around your engine, and should be easy enough to find. One end will be connected into the engine, and the other into the distributor cap, but it should look like it simply goes into a hole that is located near the engine. This is because you usually can’t just get to the distributor cap in most vehicles – normally, the air intake system will be in the way. You’ll probably have to remove the air intakes system, or at least some part of it, in order to get to the distributor cap.

Now, you probably won’t have to take off the entire air intake system, as the cap is fairly small, and should only be underneath one part of it. Nonetheless, removing any part of the air intake is going to be fairly easy, as it is bolted down. As long as you have a decent wrench, getting the bolts on should be no problem, although you’ll want to memorize what order you take the out in just in case. Once you unbolt the intake, it should pop right off, leaving the distributor cap uncovered. The plugs should be connected directly to it. In any case, it will be circular, facing sideways, and probably colored differently than the rest of your engine.

Before you detach the spark plugs, you’ll need to find some way of memorizing their appropriate spots. Each spark plug is attached to a cylinder on one end, and a corresponding slot on the distributor cap; whether you’re replacing a plug or the cap, you’ll need to make sure that the plugs maintain the same cylinder to cap position, otherwise, the cylinders that you’ve misplaced will no longer work.

Next, you’ll need to remove the spark plug wires and ignition cables. In some cars, you’ll have to remove other pieces of the engine in order to get to the ignition cables properly, but it shouldn’t be very hard to find out what that is and remove it. To remove the plugs, just twist and then pull them out. Remember to twist first! Otherwise you can damage the rubber cable, as it can stick to the plastic.

To remove the distributor cap, just unbolt it (or unscrew or unclip, as the case may be), take off any remaining wires, and slide the cap off the engine carefully (some parts of the engine that the cap is connected to are very fragile). To install a new cap, simply replace the rotor an cap, and then reverse your steps.

How to Install an Ignition Distributor

  1. Mark the position of the rotor prior to removal of the distributor. This will aid in installing the replacement unit into the proper position.
  2. Install the replacement distributor so the rotor points in the same place.
  3. Compare the original distributor to the replacement unit. Pay special attention to the area below the flange. Check all dimensions!
  4. Lubricate the o-ring before inserting the distributor into the engine to prevent bent pins.
  5. Be sure not to force the distributor into the engine or use a bolt to pull it into the block! Damage to the distributor and/or engine may occur.
  6. Inspect all components (spark plugs, wires, etc) in the ignition system for wear and/or corrosion. Replace as necessary.
  • The Ignition distributor is basically the heart of the ignition/spark system. The PCM,ECM, or vehicle computer is the brain and controls the distributor. The distributor is being removed form most late model vehicles and a direct ignition system is being installed. The direct ignition system basically supplies spark direclty to the spark plug rather then going through a distributor to distribute the spark. The distributor has many parts including moving mechanical parts and several electrical components that are subject to extreme engine conditions such as heat and extreme voltage that the ignition coil produces. Most late model vehicles that still use a distributor, can have 20-50,000 volts running through it. This voltage has to move from the coil, into and through the distributor and out through the spark plug wire and through the spark until it ignites inside the cylinder. Many times worn spark plugs and wires can back this voltage up into the distribtuor and/or ignition coil and cause it to short out and fail. Performing a tune up often(every few years) can prevent this from happening and can save or preserve the life of a distributor. Many other factors can cause a distributor to fail. These other factors include:
    • Worn or excessive play in the timing belt or chain

      Inserts,Gauges, Taps, Tools, Kits, Specialist Stockist / Distributor

      Leaking o-ring at the base of the distributor
    • High resistance in the spark plug wires or spark plugs
    • Worn Distributor cap, rotor, or other worn ignition components.
  • If you have a failed distributor or ignition coil, it is strongly recommended to replace the other related tune up components. Putting a brand new distributor or coil on a vehicle with old or worn spark plug wires and old/worn spark plugs is simply silly and will most likely cause you to replace the same parts over again. Look closely at the ignition system as a whole and most likely a good tune up is due when a distributor or coil failure happens.

Top Dead Centre (TDC) and ignition timing

When a piston in an engine reaches the top of its travel, that point is known as Top Dead Centre or TDC. This is important to know because I don't think any engine actually fires the spark plug with the pistons at TDC. More often than not, they fire slightly before TDC. So how does your ignition system work, and what is ignition timing all about?

Well generating the spark is the easy part. The electrical system in your car supplies voltage to your coil and ignition unit. The engine will have a trigger for each cylinder, be it a mechanical trigger (points), electronic module or crank trigger. Whatever it is, at that point, the engine effectively sends a signal to the coil to discharge into the high voltage system. That charge travels into the distributor cap and is routed to the relevant spark plug where it is turned into a spark. The key to this, though, is the timing of the spark in relation to the position of the piston in the cylinder. Hence ignition timing. Having the spark ignite the fuel-air mixture too soon is basically the same as detonation and is bad for all the mechanical components of your engine. Having the spark come along too late will cause it to try to ignite the fuel-air mixture after the piston has already started to recede down the cylinder, which is inefficient and loses power.
Timing the spark nowadays is usually done with the engine management system. It measures airflow, ambient temperature, takes input from knock sensors and literally dozens of sensors all over the engine. It then has an ignition timing map built into its memory and it cross references the input from all the sensors to determine the precise time that it should fire the spark plug, based on the ignition timing map. At 3000rpm, in a 4 cylinder engine, it does this about 100 times a second. In older systems, the spark timing was done using simple mechanical systems which had nowhere near the ability to compensate for the all the variables involved in a running combustion engine.
Typically as an engine revs quicker, the ignition timing needs to advance because the spark needs to get to the cylinder more quickly. Why? Well the fuel-air mix takes a finite amount of time to combust. It won't burn any quicker or slower for any given engine speed. So for higher speeds, the mixture needs to be ignited earlier in the cycle to ensure that it begins to burn at the optimum timing point. In modern systems, this is all taken account of in the ignition timing map. On older mechanical system, they used mechanical or vacuum advance systems, so that the more vacuum generated in the intake manifold (due to the engine running quicker), the more advanced the timing became.

Checking ignition timing

timing mark

Despite the speed that an engine turns, it is possible for mere mortals like you and me to be able to check the ignition timing or an engine using (and you'd have never guessed this) an ignition timing light. Timing lights are typically strobe lights. They work by being connected to the battery directly and then having an induction coil clamped around one of the spark plug leads - normally the first or last cylinder in the engine depending on the manufacturer. When the engine fires the spark plug for that cylinder, the inductive loop detects the current in the wire and flashes the strobe in the timing light once. So if the engine is ticking over at 1100rpm, the strobe will flash 550 times a minute (4 stroke engine, remember?). Fantastic. So you're now holding a portable rave lighting rig but how does this help you see the timing of an engine? Well it's simple. You must have seen strobe lights working somewhere - a rave, a stage show - they're used to effectively freeze the position of something in time and space by illuminating it only at a certain point and for a fraction of a second. Shooting a strobe at someone walking in a dark room will result in you seeing them walk as if they were a flip-book animation on a reel of film. This effect is what's used to visualise the timing of your engine. Somewhere on the front of the engine there will be a notch near one of the timing belt pulleys and stamped into the metal next to it will be timing marks in degrees. On the pulley itself there will be a bump, recess or white-painted blob. When you point the timing light down towards the timing belt pulley, remember it fires once for each firing of the cylinders? Each time it fires, the white blob on the pulley should be at the same position in its rotation - the strobe fires once for each ignition spark at which point the mark should be in the same place, and the effect to you is that the whole pulley, timing mark and all, are now standing still in the strobe light. The mark on the pulley will line up with one of the degree marks stamped on the engine, so for example if the white dot always aligns with the 10° mark, it means your engine is firing at 10 degrees before TDC. When you rev the engine, the timing will change so the mark will move closer or further away from the TDC mark depending on how fast the engine is spinning.
Note that in some engines, the two marks are simply painted or stamped, and there are no degree markings. In this case, the marks align when the first piston is exactly at TDC.

Check the timing marks first

After all that, it's worth pointing out that crank timing marks can be way off so it's worth confirming that your TDC marker is actually TDC before pratting about with the timing. It's not as bad now as it used to be, but in the bad old days, Rover V8's were particularly bad for this, with some being as much as 12° off! So how you do confirm your TDC really is TDC? Small cameras, a good set of feeler gauges, some cash and someone who knows what they're doing.

Timing marks on cam belt pulleys

The same timing marks exist stamped into the metal near, and on the pulley on the end the cam. Essentially these marks are used to line up the cam to the correct position when you're changing the timing belt. You have to make sure the engine is rotated to TDC and that the cams are properly aligned too. If you don't, the cams will spin permanently out-of-synch with the engine crank and the engine will run badly, if at all.

Monday, June 28, 2010

Engine characteristics

Engine is a mechanical type. The change of heat energy used to power the drive. , Called the heat engine. This is with several types

The heat engine is a 2.
1, internal combustion engines.
2, the combustion of automotive exterior.
2-engine and can be separated by the table below:

Engines used in cars. Must be small and lightweight. Because of the need to install a limited The capacity to produce a motorcycle and drive around to the other high-use And less noisy. With this engine gas engine petrol or diesel and Rock Lee. An internal combustion engine is the engine currently used in most cars.
Gas engine gasoline engine or Rock Lee.

1st shirt smoking (CYLINDER BLOCK).

Structure made of metal or alloy. Usually have the edge on the edge of the outer wall it helps to increase strength and cooling. Shirt pump includes a cylinder, piston set multiple mobile. And down inside. Top of the cylinder seal was a pump lid. Hermetical, with a pump lid gasket between Smoking and smoking rooms Shirt Cap crankshaft is the lower part of the shirt around the pump cylinder is found by evening.
Cold water and will be found through the channels with the internal lubricant pump shirt also includes a cylinder, piston move up. Mix fuel with air will not leak. And resistance of friction. Between the cylinder piston. Must be low as possible. Therefore, cylinders must be produced efficiently.

2, pump lid (CYLINDER HEAD).

Scum pump is installed above the pump shirt. The hidden room is burning. Cylinder wall and the tongue and swallow. Must be able to tolerate temperatures. And most are to come. From the operation of this engine with pump lid. Is made from cast iron or alloy Aluminum & ???? Pluto The evening performance is better than cast iron sculpture. Cap also includes pump. Cast cold water. Which articulate with cast cold water on the shirt smoking It also cast a cold pump lid. Also cast cold spark plugs.

3-cylinder (PISTON).
– Structure
Mobile piston up and down within cylinder To the duty charged on tempo ID. Compress the explosive mix. And spit out the most important functions of the exhaust cylinder is receiving pressure from the ignition, and this is sent to the crankshaft through the pump shaft. Cylinder was high-temperature heating and always do the most and Must be durable to run around the high over long periods of time. Typically made from cylindrical.
Aluminum alloy. This lightweight and efficient cooling better than other types of materials the name of spare parts. The piston is shown in the illustration below.

– Length of cylinder gap. (Distance between the piston cylinders).
When the piston is heated humid. It will expand slightly. The diameter is increased with this expansion in every period there is a gap between the cylinder piston in place at room temperature (25 g ?, 77, ?) now called the gap length cylinder This gap cylindrical phase shift depending on the type of engine. Period but will usually start from 0.02 to 0.12 mm (0.0008 to 0.0047 inch) cylinder is similar to a slender, small portfolio. Twist, center stage is a split cylinder head is smaller than the bottom of the cylinder slightly. Therefore phase space The piston is the most wide cylinder head. And most narrow at the bottom of the cylinder.

Phase spaces of the piston is measured different This depends on the type of engine repair manual view point to find a measure of gap cylindrical phase.

Period gap is very important plunger. Engine to run correctly and performance is better. If the gap distance is less. Gives no phase gap between the cylinder when the cylinder piston will cause the heating cylinder adjacent to the cylinder. The result can cause the engine to deteriorate. If the gap distance too. In contrast is the pressure caused by the ignition And pressure of gas
The burn is OK. Cause reduced engine performance.

– Piston ring (PISTON RING).
Ring customers will be the bow of the piston ring groove. Outside diameter size of the piston ring is slightly larger than the piston own when combined with the piston in the extended properties of the contractile ring, and it grew to a close attachment to the cylinder wall. Cylindrical metal ring to a high resistance to wear a special kind cast iron plate Projec Emie Pluto That will not scrape the piston ring is a trace amount of cylinder piston ring to vary by type of engine. The number is usually three to four balls, one ring per cylinder.

Piston ring has three major functions is The act prevents air leakage from the fuel and the gap between the piston cylinder. Rooms with crankshaft Rhythm during the implosion and explosion are two functions that prevent the lubricating oil on the side of the piston cylinder. Not to leak out into the room survived burn. The last page is Heat transfer from piston to cylinder wall. To piston cooling.

1) ring compression
This ring prevents leakage of compressed air and fuel mix and the gas generated by burning room packed between strokes. Point and not to explode into the room number of the crankshaft ring is compressed depends on the type of engine. Generally a child will have a piston ring which pumped two “ring on the recorder” and “ring-packed second” ring is compressed, the portfolio characteristics. Therefore, the lower edge of it touched the cylinder wall.
Design such as this to occur as close to the touch. Between ring and cylinder. It is also a sweep oil from the cylinder walls effectively.

Piston ring is the number “1″ or “2″ on it the number “1″ means that Ring and on the number “2″ is the second ring assembly, so this number must face up to the top

2) sweep the oil ring.
Oil ring sweep sweep Cause a film of oil needed to lubricate the surface between piston And cylinder wall. And sweep the excess oil. To prevent the oil drop to ring in the room burn oil sometimes called a sweep for the third ring are two types together. Oil-ring sweep includes the three-piece This three-piece is used.

(2.1) Total
Oil-ring sweep includes the known oil provide feedback. That size is around. And oil is known to be in accordance with this sweeping oil ring groove section that is sweeping over the ring by the fluid into the scourge known these And flow back into the interior of the cylinder.

(2.2), three-piece
Three-piece oil ring sweep includes. Sweeping side plates. To sweep out the excess oil, and the pressure plate to sweep close to the side.
Ring ring groove and cylinder oil sweep a three-piece. To act as a total

(2.3) spaces mouth ring
Piston ring to grow in the same manner as when the hot cylinder With this piston ring has a cut mouth. And when combined within the cylinder will be the appropriate spaces, called gap mouth ring Phase spaces will vary depending on the type of machine. But typically in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 mm (0.008 to 0.020 inch) at normal temperature.

If the gap distance is too large mouth ring. Will cause the engine is pumped out of phase if the mouth is too narrow ring. Engine can be made. Will be late because of the ring. Because of heat expansion. Make ring bent. Walls made out of cylinders.

4, pump shaft (CONNECTING ROD).
Shaft with piston pump with crankshaft And are transmitted to the crankshaft end of the pump shaft with a small cylinder called a late end to the remaining crankshaft called late in the crankshaft to rotate at speeds in the end. Cause high temperatures. To prevent. ? deterioration caused by heat by the end of it consists of large bearings. The oil and some
This surge of oil from known oil to the piston within the cylinder to cool.
Assembly to be coupled to pump shaft. Otherwise the oil will make caulk (the side of the piston. RIM draw ?? bound directly to the prevention of errors. Pump shaft is marked in each set, the operation is that different types of machines so as to make inspection Repair Guide for detailed

5th crankshaft (CRANKSHAFT).
Drive to drive wheels of the vehicle. By drawing down the shaft of the pump and the rotation of the crankshaft crankshaft receive power from the shaft and piston pump spin speeds for this reason it is made from carbon steel, high-mix tips. a high resistance to wear.

Structure of the crankshaft of the illustrations below.

Future, the woman is supported by bearings crankshaft crankshaft’s room and crankshaft rotate around the Future is the Future, woman, each woman has the arm of the crankshaft. The crankshaft is installed on the crankshaft to the center axis of the skew axis in the form of encumbrance. To reduce the unbalanced force of the crankshaft rotation. While working on the engine crankshaft is known for a lubricant oil to the Future girl. Pump shaft bearings. Pump shaft and fasteners.

6 wheel power assist (FLY WHEEL).
Momentum wheels do help with the heavy cast iron with ?? Doc, late, with the crankshaft. Transmission for vehicles that are used in a regular rhythm of the engine explosion point. The piston is transmitted to the crankshaft only single strokes. Perry that the addition of the tempo, rhythm this other is lost due to friction wheel inertia force will continue to help force rotation (Inertia) during the other strokes apart from the explosion strokes. Rotate the crankshaft to continue to also make the engine work smoothly with the surrounding teeth fertility cycle the edges of the wheel idle wind power will help tackle the teeth of the drive motor start fertility. While starting up the engine. Gears used in automotive automatic power assist wheel is changed, a textile, Convergent Counsel

“The loss of inertia” refers to the loss is especially resonant in the compressed This occurs while the piston is moved up pressure compressed air and fuel mix.
Crankshaft bearings.
1, General Chapter lecture.
Crankshaft has been doing serious strength. (Gas caused by the ignition, piston And rotate at high speeds. For this reason, bearings needed to support the use of the crankshaft and woman, and Future oil to prevent stickiness death and loss of stiffness.
2 types of bearings.
Crankshaft and other parts that rotate at speeds and under a weighty burden to use support-bearings. The bearings-this Features good tolerance to wear. Performance and prevent contamination death. Bearings cortex consists of a metal. And surfaces of bearings made of metal type. Experience with a crankshaft for a block of metal shell to protect bearings from rotating bearings.
This has produced a many – Each type of meat is the material surface with different functions around the other to a metal white metal Clevestig fat Or aluminum.

Bearings each number is set bearings. To change the bearings will need to change the bearings to match the number of numbers that are changing the way the original number selected bearings. To study the repair manual.
1) the white metal.
Metal white metal ????????? zinc coated with tin or lead coated materials. It is seized of the island. But because it has less strength. Therefore often be used in engines has been not much
2) metal Clevestig fat
UK, fat metal surface is coated with copper metal. And lead, which is mixed with more strength and resistance to hunting as well as the white metal. But the island has been confiscated poor. Metal, UK, with a fat engine crafty And heavy load.
3) aluminum metal.
Surface aluminum metal which has a surface aluminum Tin and mixed mantle. Effective resistance to wear. And cooling better than the white metal and the metal Clevestig fat which are used with gasoline engines.

3, the gap of the oil bearings.
Face contact between the bearings on the crankshaft to rotate the need to send a sufficient amount of oil to lubricate the polish to prevent direct metal to metal ???. Therefore need a suitable gap between the bearings on crankshaft Enough oil to create a film of oil. Gap is called Oil gap. The size will vary according to type of engine but the way around.

Size is from 0.02 to 0.06 mm (0.0008 to 0.0024 inch)

Mechanisms tongue

4 strokes engine coupled with packed strokes strokes strokes suck explosive spitting exhaust strokes. But work is only 2 strokes of the tongue is attached rhythm and spew exhaust steam. Therefore, the mechanism design tongue To such work is 1 Rotate the cam shaft to run word of ID. Tongue and exhaust cam shaft to the second round will be 1 full duty work.
Flywheel ?? Times cherished possession. Will be combined in one end of the crankshaft. The flywheel ?? Times cherished possession of the cam shaft will seize on the end of the cam shaft. Exhaust cam shaft with the crankshaft is driving the belt. ID is the cam shaft drive gear that is the stickiness with ID and exhaust cam shaft (note from the picture above) the number of flywheel teeth ?? Times cherished possession cam shaft. Are many.
2 times the flywheel ?? Times cherished possession crankshaft cam shaft is rotated around the crankshaft rotate 1 Round 2 of the tongue will work balance And correct the rhythm of work. Will make the engine run efficiently. Tongue mechanism will vary depending on the engine in the system. We will illustrate the following
1st gear-independent and cherished possession.

Tongue-gear drive mechanism Times cherished possession. Used engine with a mechanical pump lid tongue beyond the cam shaft, however, the use of gear pump shirt Times cherished possession. The work will take more than noise-chain Times cherished possession by this method is not a word driver is used in modern gasoline engines.

2-chain Times cherished possession.

Mechanism driving tongue-chain, Tai cherished possession. This in-use engines over the cam shaft wall and pump cam shaft wall above the double pump. The cam shaft drive chain will be cherished possession Times. And is a lubricating oil. Tenseness of the chain will be adapted by the chains and set. The chains help reduce the pressure pulsation of the chain. Cam shaft to a chain drive is quieter than a gear and really cherished possession. Making are used when
Not too long ago.

3-belt, really cherished possession.

Belt drive mechanism, a tongue-Times, cherished possession. A cam shaft drive belt is a tooth replacement using chain Times cherished possession. Belt is quieter running chain. And do not require lubrication. Or adjust the belt tenseness also has less weight. How to drive a different word for this reason the engine is currently used in most

7th to sink oil ?? Stores (OILPAN).
Basin oil mentioned in a final order of the parts of a machine.

The bottom of the shirt called pump crankshaft The basin is an oil and stickiness is coordinating with liquid gasket or rubber gasket or packing paper. Basin oil to a steel plate. Block plan, and act ??? oil. Sink to the bottom when the car is not on the level and ??? speak out when the brake pedal in the immediate The gas station can be made to send oil to lubricate at all times. The oil will be filmed in the movie section of the basin bottom.
Basic principles of the engine 4 strokes

Resonant charge ID.
The rhythmic cadence of the air. And fuel into the cylinders, which are pulling tongues ID exhaust opening while closing word. As the piston moved down. Vacuum will occur in the cylinder and the mix of air and fuel is driven into the cylinder by atmospheric pressure.
Tempo jam
This is the rhythm, tempo of air and fuel is pumped. Both tongue and palate exhaust vapor tight engine while moving from bottom dead center to dead center will be pumped on the mix makes the pressure and temperature are increased to the point of explosion crankshaft one full rotation. when moving it around to center on death.
Cadency point explosion.
This rhythm is the rhythm engine powered car in production is due before the piston is moving to zero in on death strokes recorder will spark the spark plugs fire to the mix of air and fuel resulting in burn insurgency quickly. cause the gas pressure cylinder pressure to force a draw down.
This is the machine is motoring!
Spew exhaust strokes.
The rhythm of this gas will be burned exclusion from cylinders. Exhaust open and tongue out from the piston is moved up dead center to bottom dead center. Driving exhaust gases from the cylinder when the piston top dead center and moving it will start to charge ID rhythm again. Described from this point until the crankshaft rotate twice. And the engine will be a fully working routine. Quaternary cadency Cadency ID is attached packed ingredients. Explode and spit out the exhaust. This is the basic work of the four engine strokes.
Lubrication system.
Engine consists of a moving metal parts in many parts, each of which will combine the decidedly Those parts include pump shaft and crankshaft parts
Mechanisms tongue
When the engine starting rotation. Friction between these parts causes are job losses erode As well as the stickiness of the engine. Due to heat from the grate. Therefore, lubrication is sent to those parts. To prevent unwanted symptoms of them. The lubricant was sent pay.
The engine’s lubrication system that Picture below shows the mechanism of lubrication while the spin axis.

Role of lubricant
1) will create a coating of lubricant oil over the surface of metal joint To prevent exposure. Direct metal It also reduces traction to occur least And to prevent wear. And the heat.
2) allows parts of the engine oil cooling.
3) enables the prevention of oil leakage between the piston And a cylinder.
4) bring oil from the engine grime.
5) oil prevent parts from corrosion.

Type of lubrication system.
Oil is sent to pay the moving parts of the engine such as a multiple-pressure-??? as a whip and sprinkle with a pressure ??? together. The only way a pressure is applied to the motor current. In-pressure lubrication system. Oil pressure is caused by a gas station and send forces to the movement of engine parts.

The flow path of a lubricating system pressure as shown in the illustration below.

Gas Stations.
Station suck up oil from oil basin. Make the oil pressure up and down to the movement of engine parts. Sometimes ??? will be driving the crankshaft and the sometimes eccentric shaft or belt to get a rude filter will be installed at the entrance of the petrol station to filter out dirt, oil
Gear-pump-pump and call Soi? Pump is a two-to

Basic Understanding Why Your Car’s Engine Misfires

Your vehicle’s engine goes through a combustion process thousands of times each minute. Air and fuel are sent to each cylinder’s combustion chamber where the mixture is compressed. Coil voltage travels through a spark plug that is located at the top of each chamber. The spark plug ignites the compressed mixture, which provides the necessary energy to move your vehicle down the road. When a misfire occurs, the event affects your car’s performance, efficiency, and overall drivability.

This article will explore the reasons your engine might suffer a misfire. We’ll take a look at problems involving a loss of spark, unbalanced air-fuel mixture, and compression leaks. I’ll explain the factors that can contribute to each of these issues.

Loss Of Spark

A loss of spark can be due to fouled spark plugs, bad wires, or a distributor cap that has developed a crack. Plugs should normally be replaced every 40,000 miles. Even those that are advertised as being capable of lasting 100,000 miles should be replaced long before that marker arrives. Besides expiring due to normal use, oil deposits can build on the electrodes, preventing voltage from jumping the gap.

Spark plug wires are critical because a fouled wire will prevent voltage from reaching the plug. If that happens, the plug will be unable to ignite the compressed air-fuel mix in the associated cylinder’s combustion chamber.

If the distributor cap is cracked, the voltage may be unable to travel properly between the rotor tip and the terminals. Here too, this can prevent the plug from receiving the voltage necessary for ignition.

Unbalanced Air-Fuel Mixture

For several reasons, the air-fuel mixture within the combustion chamber can be too lean. When this occurs, there is an insufficient amount of gasoline to provide an efficient burn. This might be due to a fuel pump that is failing, a fuel injector that has formed an obstruction in the nozzle, or even a leaking exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve. Each can prevent sufficient fuel from reaching the cylinder’s combustion chamber.

There may be also be cases in which the mixture is too rich. Rather than an insufficient amount of gasoline preventing an efficient burn, there is too much in the chamber. This problem is far less common than a lean mix. When it occurs, it is usually due to a leaking injector.

Compression Leak

If a given cylinder’s chamber is suffering from a loss of compression, that means it is losing a portion of the air-fuel mixture before it can be ignited. This problem can usually be narrowed down to two potential root causes: an exhaust valve that has formed a leak or a blown head gasket. If you’re able to identify misfiring within multiple cylinders (and you have confirmed your spark plugs are fine), the issue is likely the head gasket.

A loss of compression can be confirmed by performing a leakdown test. It is a simple test that will help you identify whether compression is being lost through an exhaust valve with a deteriorating ring. This is a test you can do on your own rather than hiring a mechanic for the job. Most auto supply stores sell a special gauge that is inserted into the suspected cylinder’s spark plug hole.

Misfires can be serious. If you’re driving a small 4-cylinder car, a single misfiring cylinder can reduce your engine’s power by 25 percent. You’ll feel it shaking at idle. If the problem is severe, your engine may even stall. Even if your engine has eight or more cylinders, a steady misfire can reduce its fuel efficiency and impact its overall performance. Moreover, your car will fail an emissions test.

If your engine is misfiring, test the spark, air-fuel mixture, and perform a leakdown test for compression leaks. With a little time and effort, you can successfully narrow down and fix the root cause.

An Introduction to Inductive Ignition Systems

Inductive ignition systems have existed since 1908, developed by Charles Kettering who also developed the first practical engine driven generator.

The design has been improved over the years but the most significant recent development has been the introduction of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT); these have allowed the design of extremely accurate, high spark energy inductive ignition systems.

A single operation is carried out by a transistor turning on the current to the ignition coils primary winding. This ‘charging’ stores energy in the coils magnetic circuit. The current is then switched off. As the magnetic field begins to collapse the coil tries to resist the drop in current causing the voltage in the secondary winding to rise rapidly, this high voltage breaks down the air/fuel mixture in the spark gap allowing a spark to pass, causing ignition of the air/fuel mixture.

The most significant advantage of inductive ignition systems is that inductive coils are generally more efficient than capacitive discharge coils as they can provide longer spark duration that can ensure complete combustion, especially on lean burn and turbo charged engines. The ability to provide longer spark duration is because inductive coils only provide enough energy to cross the spark gap; the remaining energy from the ignition coil is used to maintain the spark. Capacitive discharge coils release almost all of their energy instantaneously, therefore considerably reducing the amount of energy available to maintain the spark.

With inductive ignition systems more energy can be delivered to the secondary winding of the coil than in a capacitive ignition system. In fact, with the same power supply current draw, up to five times more energy can be delivered to the secondary winding of an inductive ignition coil than to a capacitive discharge coil. Typically a capacitive discharge system will deliver a maximum of 10 millijoules of energy compared to an inductive ignition system delivering more like 50 millijoules of energy and potentially in excess of 100 millijoules. This large difference in supplied energies will mean an inductive system can provide spark duration of 2000 microseconds or more in a single spark, compared to 600 microseconds for a capacitive system.

With inductive ignition systems the time taken to charge the ignition coil is called the ‘Dwell’. This dwell can be increased or decreased for differing engine applications. If longer spark duration is required to improve combustion of lean mixtures or engines with large cylinders the dwell time is increased, inputting more energy into the primary coil. Dwell time is decreased when there is more than enough spark energy to combust the mixture, this decrease will reduce spark plug wear, therefore increase spark plug life.

The high energy and long, programmable spark durations are a considerable advantage since they provide better ignition of lean or non-homogenous air/fuel mixtures. In many cases engines that are unable to meet emission standards with capacitive discharge systems can be bought into compliance with electronic inductive ignition systems such as those manufactured by Gill Instruments.

How to test a car spark plug

Spark plugs are important components in system of a car. Spark plugs enable the proper functioning of a car engine and perform the function of compressing fuels by the use of an electric spark. Although spark plugs wear out gradually, the user should ensure that the spark plug is of high quality in order to ensure longevity in performance. A car user is advised to take his vehicle for regular engine servicing. Regular engine servicing enables the mechanic to detect on any impending irregularities in the car. The car user is also advised to replace their car spark plugs after every two years.

So here is what you do.

Spark plugs are important components in system of a car.

A clear indicator that the car has a faulty spark plug is when the engine slows down on its performance. This is an obvious sign that the spark plug is worn out. Before the user replaces the worn out car spark plug, they should first check the manufacturer’s description of the car spark plug. The manufacturer’s description gives the exact specifications on the original car spark plug and alternative ones in case the user does not find the original type. In order to ensure that the spark plug is completely worn out, the user should test it first. Testing is normally done by the use of a spark plug gauge. Other areas to check on include spark plug cables which indicate any splits, cracks, rust in the engine as well as any other damaged area of the engine.

The car owner or the mechanic should take precautions against the risk of shock by wearing rubber gloves before they start on the task. The mechanic is also advised not to lean against the vehicle while the engine is still running. The owner/ mechanic can then start by testing the car spark plug functionality by dismantling each plug from the car engine. Dismantling of the car spark plug is done by the use of a ratchet wrench. With the use of the ratchet wrench, the user is advised to turn the spark plugs in an anti- clockwise direction. This is done while the engine is still running. When the engine starts to slow down, then the owner of the vehicle should know that the spark plug is still in good condition. If the engine does not react in any way after the spark plugs have been disconnected, then the spark plugs need immediate replacing.

The next step is removing the spark plug wires. This is done after the engine has cooled down. The owner of the vehicle can then test to see if the spark plug ignition is working. He can do this by exposing the spark plug wire to a metal surface. The spark plug will then emit a spark. This is an indication that the spark plug is in good condition. This action should be repeated for every other spark plug wire. Spark plugs should be also be cleaned regularly so as not to hinder on their performance. The owner/ mechanic of the vehicle should check to ensure that the spark plugs work well and then do another test on the same.

How To Test A Car Spark Plug

One of the important components in the system of a car is the spark plugs. They are basically a high voltage bridge for electricity, when the electricity crosses the bridge that is actually a gap between two contact points inside the engine; the spark is made by it that ignites gas vapors which makes the engine to roar.

Spark plugs enable the car to function properly and also perform the function of compressing fuels by the use of an electric spark. Although the efficiency of the spark plugs decrease gradually, it must be ensured that the plug is of high quality to guarantee its better performance. The vehicle’s user must ensure its regular engine servicing. When an engine is regularly serviced, the mechanic can detect any faults in it. It is recommended that spark plugs must be replaced after every two years or even earlier if needed.

Following is what can be done.

Spark plugs are vital components of the car’s system. When a car’s engine slows down in its performance, it is a clear indication that the plug has become faulty. This means that the plugs are worn out. Before the worn out plugs are replaced, the manufacturer’s description they should be checked first. That description gives the exact specifications of the original car spark plug and also suggesting alternative ones if the original ones cannot be found. For ensuring that the plug is completely worn out, it needs to be tested first. A spark plug gauge is generally used for testing the spark plugs. Other areas for checking include plug cables as they indicate any cracks, splits and rust in the engine as well as any other damaged area of the engine.

Precautions must always be taken by the car owner or mechanic against risks of shock by wearing rubber gloves before starting the task. The mechanic must not lean against the vehicle while in a running condition. The functionality of the spark plugs can be tested by removing each plug from the car’s engine. A ratchet wrench can be used to remove the plugs. The user should turn the plugs in an anti- clockwise direction by using the ratchet wrench. This has to be done while the engine is still running. The owner of the vehicle will know that the plugs are still in good condition when the engine with start to slow down. If there is no reaction in the engine in any way when the plugs have been removed, then the plugs need to be immediately replaced.

The next step is to remove the wires of the spark plugs. This has to be done only when the engine has cooled down. The spark plugs can be tested if their ignition is working. It can be done by exposing the plug wire to a metal surface. If the plug emits a spark than this is an indication that the spark plug is in good condition. This procedure has to be repeated for every spark plug wire. It is necessary to clean the spark plugs regularly so their performance is not hindered. It can be further endured if the spark plugs work and another test can also be done on the same.

How To Test Ignition Coils

Preparation for Ignition Coil Test

The first thing you want to do is always take the necessary precautions. When working near or around a running engine one must exercise great caution. You should be aware of any loose clothing. If you have long hair you want be careful that it does not make contact with any part of your car’s engine and its moving parts.

Testing the ignition coil on your car is one of the fairly easier tasks to perform. It’s not that complex nor does it require any special tools or equipment. One thing to keep in mind is that your ignition system produces a great amount of electricity. Should anything go wrong, the result could be very dangerous. Proceed cautiously.

If your coil has already been removed from your vehicle and you need data that is more specific about your ignition coil, you can perform what is called a bench test. Set up the bench test by removing the one spark plug wire from its plug. Then remove the spark plug with a plug socket. Now you want to connect that spark plug back to the spark plug wire. Do this with great care; you don not want anything to fall into the empty spark plug opening or you’ll have a problem.

Testing the Ignition Coil: The Bench Test:

Grab a pair of insulated pliers. Hold your plug wire with insulated pliers. Now, you need a grounding point so look around your engine for one. You want a spot that is easy to access and that has exposed metal. You could even use the car’s engine for this.

Hold the spark plug wire with your insulated pliers and make contact with your chosen grounding spot with the threaded part of your spark plug. Have some one start your car’s engine and pay attention to the spark plug gap. You are looking for a bright blue spark to jump across the gap – the electricity. If you can observe this blue spark clearly, even in daylight, then your spark plug is working just fine.

Testing the Ignition Coil: The Multimeter Test

There are a number of other tests you can perform for your ignition coil. However, if you want accurate information on the status of your ignition coil then you should perform a multimeter test. This test is far more accurate in determining whether you need to replace the coil or not. It is considered the only proper test for a coil.

You could rely to an extent on the bright blue spark you see in your bench test but if that spark is somewhat weak and your eyes can’t really tell, using this spark plug can cause your vehicle to run rough or incorrectly which is the last thing you want.

Let go inside the ignition coil for a moment. The ignition coil contains two coils of wire that are right on top of each other. We refer to these coils as windings. There is a primary winding, the first wire, and a secondary winding, the second wire. The primary winding collects the electricity to create the spark. The secondary winding sends it out to the distributor. It is possible for either of these windings to malfunction causing your vehicle’s ignition coil to fail. Sometimes an ignition coil can completely fail meaning it makes absolutely no spark whatsoever.

A multimeter test is performed with the ignition coil completely disconnected. This meter provides numbers to help you determine the status of the coil – far more reliable than a visual assessment. There are different types of digital multimeters and they can be found online or at your local auto repair retailer.

Of course, to use the multimeter, you will have to know the resistance specifications for your ignition coil. If you don’t know what they are then refer to your vehicle’s service or repair manual for that information.

Testing the Windings

To test the primary winding of your ignition coil:

As mentioned above, the primary winding of the ignition coil first collects the electricity or voltage from the car’s battery. Have you found the resistance specification for your ignition coil? You will need this before performing the multimeter test. If you do not have them take a moment to locate you service or repair manual for that information.

Once you have found the resistance specifications, locate your digital multimeter. If you have a traditional round coil, you will need to use the multimeter and place the leads on the small, outside poles of your ignition coil. If you have one of the newer enclosed units, then place the leads on indicated or marked poles of your coil.

Observe the reading you get on the multimeter. If the multimeter reads within the range according to the specification in your service manual, then your primary winding is functioning well and you can go on to check the secondary winding. If you find the reading to be even slightly out of the range then you should replace the ignition coil.

To test the secondary winding of your ignition coil:

The secondary winding of your ignition coil sends the spark to your distributor and then to the spark plugs. A weak spark or no spark at all is an indication that the coil needs to be replaced.

To test your ignition coil’s secondary winding, attach the probes to the outer 12V pole and the center pole of your ignition coil. The center pole is the spot where the main wire is located that connects to the distributor. Again, check the reading to make sure they fall within the specified range as indicated in your car’s service manual. If your coil falls within that range all is well. If the reading should fall even slightly out of the specified range, then you should replace your ignition coil. Remember a failing ignition coil will cause your engine to run rough and can cause other problems as well.

Spark Plug Troubleshooting Methods

There are two methods to troubleshooting spark plug wires. The first is the backyard mechanic technique, which is simple and only requires basic hand tools, while the other is a more sophisticated method that requires a multimeter.

Quick Troubleshooting

If you don't have a multimeter, follow this method. Begin by removing the spark plug cover on the valve cover. Then pull the spark plug wire off the spark plug with a spark plug puller or needle nose pliers. Be sure to pull from the base of the wire, because they tend to seize onto the spark plug. If you don't pull from the base of the wire, you risk breaking the wire and getting it stuck on the plug, which then becomes very difficult to remove. Next, connect an extension and spark plug socket to your ratchet, and remove the spark plug. Then place the spark plug back in the wire and place it next to a good engine ground. An engine ground is any metallic object connected to the chassis of your vehicle. Next, have a helper crank the vehicle while you observe the spark arcing from the spark plug to the engine ground. If the spark is dark blue, then you know the wires are good. If the spark is faint and yellow, you could have a faulty spark plug wire. However, this technique isn't very accurate for pinpointing the problem that might be affecting your vehicle. A more consistent and accurate method is to use a multimeter.

Multimeter Troubleshooting

If you don't have a multimeter, it is highly advisable to purchase one as it comes in handy for electrical troubleshooting. To check if the wire is faulty, set the multimeter to the "Ohms" setting and connect the black lead to one side of the spark plug wire and the red lead to the other side of the wire. You should see about 5,000 Ohms of resistance per foot of wire. This is a general rule of thumb, and will vary from vehicle to vehicle. But what is important and what you really need to look for is for an Ohm reading out of the ordinary. If the multimeter reads "Infinite" or "Ouch," then it is telling you that there is a break in the wire and that it should be replaced. If the multimeter reads an excessive Ohm reading, more than the specifications for your car, the wire should also be replaced in this scenario.

How to Check the Resistance of a Spark Plug Wire

When your car engine isn't running right, or misfires, start by diagnosing the spark plug wires. Too much resistance in the wire leads to less electrical current getting to the plug. Reduced electricity results in not enough spark to ignite the gasoline mixture that fires the engine. With a multimeter, it takes just a few minutes to measure the resistance of each plug wire.


Step 1
Remove both ends of the spark plug wire--from its connection with the plug and its connection with the ignition coil.

Step 2
Check a repair manual for your make and model to find your spark plug wire resistance range. The measurement will be in kilohms.

Step 3
Place the multimeter dial setting on "ohms (Ω)" for auto-range multimeters. Turn dial to the "ohmmeter (Ω)" section of manual range multimeters, then choose the closest setting that is greater than your plug wire's correct resistance. For example: For a 15-19k resistance range, turn the dial to "20k." For a 21-25k range, turn the dial to "200k."

Step 4
Touch one lead from the multimeter to the metal center of one of the spark plug wire connectors. Start with either end, as the wires are not polarity-sensitive.

Step 5
Connect the second lead to the other end of the plug wire, once again touching metal to metal. Hold in place.

Step 6

Take a reading in kilohms (1 kilohm=1,000 ohms). If it falls within the manufacturer's measurement range in your repair manual, the plug wire is not your problem. Higher readings indicate too much resistance, possibly because of rusting or faults in the wire. A broken wire allows no electricity reading at all, which will cause the multimeter to register resistance as "over limit."

Monday, April 5, 2010

Setting up clutch system


The flywheel provides a friction surface for the clutch disc, a torque buffering mass, a mounting surface for the pressure plate, a mounting for the starter driven gear, and on some engines the flywheel is a factor in engine balance.

The condition of the friction surface of the flywheel is important for proper clutch function. The surface should be smooth and free of burned spots and surface cracks. Used flywheels can be resurfaced. This should be done by grinding rather than lathe turning as less material is removed. The amount of material removed from the face can affect which clutch release bearing should be used. A flywheel should always be checked for runout on the engine it will

Pressure Plate

This is the other half of the driving friction surface. It mounts on the flywheel. It consists of four main parts and is more correctly called a clutch cover assembly. These parts are the pressure plate itself, the springs (or spring, if a diaphragm type), the clutch cover, and the release arms. There are two basic designs of clutches usually referred to by the spring type.

These are the Rockford™ (diaphragm spring type) and the Borg and Beck™ (coil spring type). The coil spring type is also called a three-finger type, referring to the three release arms this style requires to compress the coil springs.

The "softest" clutch is the diaphragm type. It also requires the least amount of travel to release. The diaphragm type clutch works good in lightweight, low geared vehicles. It is not the best clutch for high RPM use as the diaphragm spring will stay "flat" or released from the centrifugal force generated by the RPM. A variation of the diaphragm type was used for a while by GM, that to some extent helped this problem. This was called the Hi-Cone diaphragm type and was designed so the spring - instead of being flat when released - still had a slight bevel. These Hi-Cone units were not bad but still won't hold like the Borg and Beck coil spring type. Aftermarket units like the Centerforce®, use centrifugal weights to counteract this high-rpm flattening and subsequent loosening. It should be noted that this is not typically a concern of the Jeep enthusiast as high RPM horsepower is not as much an interest as low-RPM torque. It should be pointed out that the spring itself is the "release arms" of a diaphragm type clutch. Note that when interchanging from one type to the other, you will require a different throwout bearing. The three-finger style requires a longer throwout vs. the diaphram type, which uses a shorter throwout bearing. More on this later...

The fourth part of the pressure plate assembly is the cover. The pressure plate, spring (or springs) and release arms are attached to the cover in such a manner that, when the release bearing pushes on the three arms or the diaphragm spring, it causes a leveraged action to take place. This counteracts the spring pressure and lifts the pressure plate off the clutch disc, releasing the clutch.

As stated above, the diaphragm type clutch takes slightly less travel to release and requires about .030 total air gap when released. The coil spring type requires about .040 to .050 total air gap when released. Air gap is the clearance between the clutch disc, flywheel, and pressure plate with the clutch released. A total air gap of .050 will measure .025 between each side of the disc.

Clutch Disc

This is the "driven" part of the clutch. It has a friction material riveted to each side of a wavy spring (called a marcel). This is attached to a splined hub that the transmission input gear protrudes into.

There are basically two common types of friction material used for clutch lining. These are organic and metallic. The organic is best for all around use. The metallic is preferred by some for severe duty applications but requires high spring pressures and is hard on the flywheel and pressure plate friction surfaces. Avoid solid hub clutches and clutches without marcel as they will always chatter when used in vehicles with a rear differential mounted on springs (as opposed to a transaxle design).

Pilot Bushing
In most cases, this is a porous bronze, pre-lubed bushing rather than an actual bearing, as it is often called. A few applications still use an actual bearing and others use a needle roller type bearing, but by far, the most common type is bronze. You cannot use a roller bearing on a transmission shaft originally designed for a bronze bushing due to different type of heat treatment on the shafts

The pilot bushing is seldom thought of as a part of the clutch system but it is one of the most vital parts of the system. It pilots the end of the transmission input gear in the crankshaft. If it is worn or not running "true", it can cause serious clutch problems or transmission failure. Pilot bushing bore runout should always be checked with a dial indicator and should be within .002 total. The bronze bushing type should be a press fit in the crankshaft bore. It must be installed carefully. It should have between .002 and .003 clearance on the transmission shaft when installed. The pilot bushing is only functional when the clutch is disengaged but it is a factor in input gear alignment at ALL times.

Most people have no idea what an important part the pilot bushing plays in the life of the transmission and clutch. The job of the pilot bushing is to support the end of the transmission input (main drive) gear in the crankshaft and it only acts as a bushing when the clutch is depressed. This pilot bushing should be a light drive fit into the crank bore. Care should be taken when installing any pilot bushing as they are soft and easily damaged by crude installation techniques. A damaged pilot bushing can bind on the input gear giving symptoms of clutch drag. Transmission damage and early failure can be caused by a pilot bushing or crankshaft bore that "runs out" in relation to the transmission locating bore in the bellhousing. It is advisable to check the bore of the crank with a dial indicator before installing the pilot bushing (see below). If the bore runs out more than .003 total, the crank should be set up in a lathe and the bore trued up OR a special pilot bushing should be made that runs out the same amount as the crank bore. The run out in the bore of a pilot bushing is put 180 degrees off from the crank bore run out and the pilot bushing installed. If properly done, this can put the bore of the pilot bushing well within the .003 required. We have used this method to save engine disassembly many times. A disadvantage of this method shows up at pilot bushing replacement time as a special pilot bushing will have to be reproduced.

It is always a good idea to use an input gear (of the proper diameter) or clutch aligning tool when installing the clutch on any engine. With the clutch disc aligned on the pilot bushing it becomes a simple matter when installing the transmission to engage the splines and bolt up the transmission . If this simple procedure is not done, the transmission shaft won't line up and the temptation will be great to "pull it up with the bolts" which damages the front transmission bearing, pilot bushing, and more than likely will break an ear off the transmission or adapter. The transmission should slip in freely to mate up with the face of the bellhousing.

Clutch alignment is critical to installation. Otherwise, expect the transmission to not line up with the pilot bushing.

Clutch Release Bearing
As its name implies, this is the bearing that releases the clutch. It is often referred to as a "throw-out" bearing. They come on a number of different style carriers. The carriers, in some cases, vary considerably with the particular engine. In the GM line, for example, the bearings are all the same but there are several different carriers that vary about 1/2" between the shortest and longest. Which to use usually depends on the style of pressure plate being used, but substituting one length for another can often be used to the installer's great advantage. AMC, Ford & Mopar and others are far less generous with the variety of lengths available. This will be covered in more detail later in this article.

Because the release bearing only works when the clutch is being released it usually lasts quite a long time. However, improper linkage adjustment or riding the clutch with your foot when driving can wear the bearing prematurely. Normally there should be a minimum of 1/16" clearance between the face of the bearing and the three release fingers or diaphragm spring of the pressure plate when the clutch is engaged. This fact is important and will be discussed further when we get to the part about setting up the clutch linkage

Clutch Release Fork

This is the arm or lever that the linkage operates that moves the release bearing. There are several different styles of release arm. The most common in automotive use is the fork type that pivots on a rocker. This type requires a rearward force to move the release bearing forward. Note now that the following is key to your understanding of the clutch system: The ratio of the arm is the difference in length between the pivot point and the release bearing centerline divided by the length from the pivot point to where the linkage attaches. The ratio of the fork is important and will be used in the linkage setup section later in this article.

GM, Ford, and AMC all use a pivot type release arm as their most common type. Some late GM, Pinto, Jeep and a few others use a non-rocker arm. This style pivots on the passenger side of center and is direct acting. That is, it takes a forward movement of the linkage to move the release bearing forward. This is not as suitable as the rocker system as it usually complicates the linkage requirements.

Regarding GM clutch forks, there are two basic types of manufacture used for the pivot type forks. These are stamped steel and forged steel. The stamped steel type uses a flat steel retainer spring that is riveted to the fork. These forks must be used with mushroom-head type pivots. The forged steel forks must use the ball-head type pivot. (This is different than the ball-on-pedestal AMC type.) These forged forks are retained on the pivot by a spring-wire retainer that fits in a groove machined in the ball pocket in the fork.

Release Arm Pivot

As its name implies, this is the support that the release arm pivots on. There are basically two types. One pivots on a ball-ended stud that screws into the bellhousing. The other type is an actual bearing ball that sits in a pedestal type socket that is part of the bellhousing. GM, Ford, and early AMC use the screw-in type. Late AMC favors the ball type.

There is an adjustable length pivot (shown) with an adjustment range of 1-3/8 to 1-1/2 inches available for GM engines that can sometimes be used to compensate for variations in flywheel, clutch disc, and release bearing thickness. More about this in the troubleshooting section.

Both ball and mushroom-head GM pivots are available in 1-3/8 and 1-1/2" length (overall length when not [this is important] installed in the bellhousing). It is very important to use the correct style of pivot in relation to the type of arm being used.

Transmission Front Bearing Retainer

This great device has three critical functions. This first is as its name implies. The second is to provide a register on which the bellhousing must center. This is feature is sometimes overlooked with expensive consequences. Thirdly, its tubular snout is the surface on which the throwout bearing rides on its way in to depress the springs of the pressure plate. Conversions often require special and modified retainers to acheive compatibility.

This provides a mounting place for the transmission, as well as a means of aligning the transmission to the engine. In some applications it also has a structural mounting function.

The alignment function is extremely important. Unfortunately, this is the most often overlooked and least understood part about the bellhousing.

Most people who have worked on these parts realize there are aligning pins in the engine block that register with holes in the bellhousing. What they do not realize is, there can be a variation in the location of these holes and this variation can affect clutch and transmission life. How to check bellhousing alignment will be covered in its own section further on in this article.

Clutch Linkage
This consists of everything between your foot and the clutch release arm. The linkags is the method of transferring the force of your left foot into the bellhousing and pressure plate release. The linkage can be mechanical, cable type or hydraulic. Note here that problems tend to show up because there are usually several choices of release arms and bearings for any particular family of engines. Choosing the wrong parts can get the linkage out of relationship and cause problems that can only be solved by removing the parts and starting over with other parts. The linkage cannot be made to compensate incorrect choice of release bearing or fork.

Cable Style Linkage
Cable linkages may seem appealing because it is easy to understand and simple to hook up. However, once past this, the installer may discover that it has high friction, stretches, sticks, rusts, freezes, frays and breaks. A cable type clutch should probably be the last choice of the three types of linkages.

Cable linkages work fine in smaller applications such as motorbikes and light cars, but they have an unsustainable record in light and heavy truck applications.

Some CJ & Commando Jeeps from 1972-1974 used a cable release, with subpar results as evidenced by the duration of their implementation.

Mechanical Style Linkage
Next is the mechanical linkage which is, with a few exceptions, the type

found on the majority of Jeeps® built prior to 1987.

There are several basic styles of Jeep mechanical linkage but all are used in nearly their original configuration when doing an engine conversion. They usually consists of a pushrod at the pedal, a bellcrank and an additional pushrod actuating the fork. Earlier systems use pullrods, bellcranks and cables in lieu of pushrods, effectively reversing the way the systems works.

The mechanical linkage is largely a successful method of clutch release. One drawback obvious to many off-roaders is the tendency of some of these to bind during frame and powertrain flex and differentiation.

Hydraulic Style Linkage
Hydraulic clutch linkage systems have moved into dominance in the past two decades, and generally with good reason.

The most common rendition of this linkage consists of the pedal pushrod against a master piston / cylinder, a high-pressure tube or line and a slave piston / cylinder whose pushrod pushes the clutch release arm.

A less common style of hydraulic release is the internal hydraulic release bearing. This design combines the piston and bearing into one unit, eliminating the pivot, fork (or release arm) and separate throwout bearing.