Monday, July 19, 2010

Sparkplug Wires

The spark plug wires in your vehicle are designed to be strong and last for a long period of time. However, you should always keep an eye on the condition of the wires to make sure that your vehicle is receiving the correct amount of spark that it needs for proper functioning.

The wires are insulated and this is where the problems can occur. The insulation will keep the spark inside the engine and not outside where it can cause problems. Cracks in the insulation of the spark plug wires are an indication that the wires should be changed. A crack or break in the insulation will cause the spark to arc onto another metal area under your hood. The spark from the plugs will arc to these other areas and keep it from the engine where it belongs.

The cylinder that has a bad spark plug wire will receive a weak spark or in some cases, no spark. This will affect the way that your vehicle runs and you will notice that your car is running a bit rougher than normal. It will also affect the amount of fuel that your car is using. In some extreme cases, fuel can get into the exhaust system and affect the pollution control devices like the catalytic converter. Your spark plug wires that are arcing under the hood of your car can also be a dangerous situation if there is fuel in its vicinity.

Performing your own vehicle maintenance is a good way to ensure that your spark plug wires are thoroughly inspected. When it is time to change the spark plugs during a routine tune up, you should make sure that you give the spark plug wires a good inspection. This will save you a great deal of trouble down the road.

While you are under the hood of your car, begin at the distributor cap and follow the wire all the way back to the spark plug. Look for cracks and damage in the insulation of the spark plug wires. Turn the wires over and bend them slightly to expose any cracks that might not be visible on a first inspection. The part of the spark plug wires on the distributor end should be inspected as well for cracks and tears. Take the wire off of the spark plug to give the wires a good inspection. There may also be a burnt look to the wires that indicate damage as well.

Any damage that is found on your spark plug wires indicates that it is time to replace the wires. You will have to buy your wires in a set and they are usually pretty inexpensive to replace. Some wires may cost you more than others, but the savings that you will realize and the problems that are avoided make the higher cost on some wires very cost effective.

Performing routine maintenance on your vehicle, such as checking the spark plug wires, is an important part of making sure that your car is running as efficiently as possible. You can do most of these maintenance tasks on your own and save some money on auto repair bills. If you are not familiar with how to perform a tune up on your vehicle, there are many resources available to you online where you can learn how to give your car a tune up and take care of all the routine maintenance without having to set foot inside a repair shop.

Keeping your car running at its optimal performance will keep it running longer and also save you a great deal of money on fuel costs.

Ignition Coil

If you are an adult, chances are you own a car and drive it to work, the store, the shopping mall, grandma’s house, and many other places from day to day. Unless you are a mechanic or especially car minded, you probably do not think about all the processes that go into something as seemingly simple as starting your car up for all those long and short trips. In fact, probably the only time you think about the process of starting your car is in the rare and frustrating event that it doesn’t start up for you. Even if you don’t spend too much time thinking about how your car cranks, you probably should. Quite a bit of modern technology went into making the parts that start your car, and one of the main parts used in that process is the ignition coil.

Back before ignition coils were in common usage, cars started in what we today would see as a strange and alien way – they were started when the driver, standing outside, turned on the engine by turning a hand crank. Have you ever wondered why turning a car on is so often called “cranking the car?” Well, that is the reason. “Cranking the car” is one of the English language’s many antiquated terms that has happened to stick around long after actually manually cranking our cars fell by the wayside as a victim to newer and smarter technology.

Ignition coils, those handy devices that in part mean we no longer have to stand outside our cars and turn a hand crank when we are ready to drive to the corner store or shopping mall, are also called spark coils, because they help the power from the battery amplify into the thousands of volts of power that are needed to spark the spark plugs. The need for the ignition coil is simple. Car batteries only have 12 volts of power. (In fact, older car batteries may only have 6 volts.) But, a car’s spark plugs, the small devices that fit into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and cause the spark that lights the gasoline and causes internal combustion, need many thousands of volts of power in order to start (not crank, keep in mind) the car. The ignition coil’s job is to convert low voltage from the battery (remember, 12 or even as low as 6 volts) into those thousands of volts needed to start the car.

Even though ignition coils represent admittedly newer technology than those old hand cranks, they have been used in different ways in the past. Until recently, a car had only one ignition coil. That coil worked through a distributor, which, true to its name, distributed the volts amplified by the ignition coil to all the spark plugs. Newer car models though, eliminated the middle man so to speak, in that they eliminated the distributer. Instead, newer, distributor-less car models use many, much smaller ignition coils. These ignition coils server either one or two spark plugs and are electronically controlled. In modern cars, the ignition coils may be either remote mounted or placed on top of and in direct contact with the spark plug.

One important thing to know about modern ignition coils is that they put into motion the “wasted spark” system. When one ignition coil serves two spark plugs that single coil generates two sparks for each cycle it is powered. The only fuel that is ignited is the fuel in the cylinder that is nearing the end of its compression stroke. The other spark, then, is “wasted,” hence the name “wasted spark” system.

Distributor cap

The distributor cap is a critical device within you vehicle’s ignition system. Effectively, its purpose it to transfer the charge created by the rotating of the distributor shaft and the rest of the motor. The distributor cap takes that energy and uses it to power the engine’s cylinders at the appropriate time and order. As a critical portion of your ignition, it should be inspected whenever you’re having problems with the ignition, as well as on the pre-scheduled maintenance times, which can be found in your car’s manual. Distributor caps are pieces of your car that need to be fixed at certain times, and even if you find a problem in other components of the ignition system, there is a chance that your cap will need changing too.

hanging your distributor cap is a fairly easy job, and it can be done by somebody with even a low understanding of car parts or tool aptitude. It’s not as easy as unscrewing and re-screwing the cap, unfortunately, but it is a job that can be done with the most basic tool set, and one that can be completed in around an hour.

If you’re trying to check, remove or change your distributor cap (or the spark plugs), you’ll find it attached to any of the spark plug wires. These wires are located all around your engine, and should be easy enough to find. One end will be connected into the engine, and the other into the distributor cap, but it should look like it simply goes into a hole that is located near the engine. This is because you usually can’t just get to the distributor cap in most vehicles – normally, the air intake system will be in the way. You’ll probably have to remove the air intakes system, or at least some part of it, in order to get to the distributor cap.

Now, you probably won’t have to take off the entire air intake system, as the cap is fairly small, and should only be underneath one part of it. Nonetheless, removing any part of the air intake is going to be fairly easy, as it is bolted down. As long as you have a decent wrench, getting the bolts on should be no problem, although you’ll want to memorize what order you take the out in just in case. Once you unbolt the intake, it should pop right off, leaving the distributor cap uncovered. The plugs should be connected directly to it. In any case, it will be circular, facing sideways, and probably colored differently than the rest of your engine.

Before you detach the spark plugs, you’ll need to find some way of memorizing their appropriate spots. Each spark plug is attached to a cylinder on one end, and a corresponding slot on the distributor cap; whether you’re replacing a plug or the cap, you’ll need to make sure that the plugs maintain the same cylinder to cap position, otherwise, the cylinders that you’ve misplaced will no longer work.

Next, you’ll need to remove the spark plug wires and ignition cables. In some cars, you’ll have to remove other pieces of the engine in order to get to the ignition cables properly, but it shouldn’t be very hard to find out what that is and remove it. To remove the plugs, just twist and then pull them out. Remember to twist first! Otherwise you can damage the rubber cable, as it can stick to the plastic.

To remove the distributor cap, just unbolt it (or unscrew or unclip, as the case may be), take off any remaining wires, and slide the cap off the engine carefully (some parts of the engine that the cap is connected to are very fragile). To install a new cap, simply replace the rotor an cap, and then reverse your steps.

How to Install an Ignition Distributor

  1. Mark the position of the rotor prior to removal of the distributor. This will aid in installing the replacement unit into the proper position.
  2. Install the replacement distributor so the rotor points in the same place.
  3. Compare the original distributor to the replacement unit. Pay special attention to the area below the flange. Check all dimensions!
  4. Lubricate the o-ring before inserting the distributor into the engine to prevent bent pins.
  5. Be sure not to force the distributor into the engine or use a bolt to pull it into the block! Damage to the distributor and/or engine may occur.
  6. Inspect all components (spark plugs, wires, etc) in the ignition system for wear and/or corrosion. Replace as necessary.
  • The Ignition distributor is basically the heart of the ignition/spark system. The PCM,ECM, or vehicle computer is the brain and controls the distributor. The distributor is being removed form most late model vehicles and a direct ignition system is being installed. The direct ignition system basically supplies spark direclty to the spark plug rather then going through a distributor to distribute the spark. The distributor has many parts including moving mechanical parts and several electrical components that are subject to extreme engine conditions such as heat and extreme voltage that the ignition coil produces. Most late model vehicles that still use a distributor, can have 20-50,000 volts running through it. This voltage has to move from the coil, into and through the distributor and out through the spark plug wire and through the spark until it ignites inside the cylinder. Many times worn spark plugs and wires can back this voltage up into the distribtuor and/or ignition coil and cause it to short out and fail. Performing a tune up often(every few years) can prevent this from happening and can save or preserve the life of a distributor. Many other factors can cause a distributor to fail. These other factors include:
    • Worn or excessive play in the timing belt or chain

      Inserts,Gauges, Taps, Tools, Kits, Specialist Stockist / Distributor

      Leaking o-ring at the base of the distributor
    • High resistance in the spark plug wires or spark plugs
    • Worn Distributor cap, rotor, or other worn ignition components.
  • If you have a failed distributor or ignition coil, it is strongly recommended to replace the other related tune up components. Putting a brand new distributor or coil on a vehicle with old or worn spark plug wires and old/worn spark plugs is simply silly and will most likely cause you to replace the same parts over again. Look closely at the ignition system as a whole and most likely a good tune up is due when a distributor or coil failure happens.

Top Dead Centre (TDC) and ignition timing

When a piston in an engine reaches the top of its travel, that point is known as Top Dead Centre or TDC. This is important to know because I don't think any engine actually fires the spark plug with the pistons at TDC. More often than not, they fire slightly before TDC. So how does your ignition system work, and what is ignition timing all about?

Well generating the spark is the easy part. The electrical system in your car supplies voltage to your coil and ignition unit. The engine will have a trigger for each cylinder, be it a mechanical trigger (points), electronic module or crank trigger. Whatever it is, at that point, the engine effectively sends a signal to the coil to discharge into the high voltage system. That charge travels into the distributor cap and is routed to the relevant spark plug where it is turned into a spark. The key to this, though, is the timing of the spark in relation to the position of the piston in the cylinder. Hence ignition timing. Having the spark ignite the fuel-air mixture too soon is basically the same as detonation and is bad for all the mechanical components of your engine. Having the spark come along too late will cause it to try to ignite the fuel-air mixture after the piston has already started to recede down the cylinder, which is inefficient and loses power.
Timing the spark nowadays is usually done with the engine management system. It measures airflow, ambient temperature, takes input from knock sensors and literally dozens of sensors all over the engine. It then has an ignition timing map built into its memory and it cross references the input from all the sensors to determine the precise time that it should fire the spark plug, based on the ignition timing map. At 3000rpm, in a 4 cylinder engine, it does this about 100 times a second. In older systems, the spark timing was done using simple mechanical systems which had nowhere near the ability to compensate for the all the variables involved in a running combustion engine.
Typically as an engine revs quicker, the ignition timing needs to advance because the spark needs to get to the cylinder more quickly. Why? Well the fuel-air mix takes a finite amount of time to combust. It won't burn any quicker or slower for any given engine speed. So for higher speeds, the mixture needs to be ignited earlier in the cycle to ensure that it begins to burn at the optimum timing point. In modern systems, this is all taken account of in the ignition timing map. On older mechanical system, they used mechanical or vacuum advance systems, so that the more vacuum generated in the intake manifold (due to the engine running quicker), the more advanced the timing became.

Checking ignition timing

timing mark

Despite the speed that an engine turns, it is possible for mere mortals like you and me to be able to check the ignition timing or an engine using (and you'd have never guessed this) an ignition timing light. Timing lights are typically strobe lights. They work by being connected to the battery directly and then having an induction coil clamped around one of the spark plug leads - normally the first or last cylinder in the engine depending on the manufacturer. When the engine fires the spark plug for that cylinder, the inductive loop detects the current in the wire and flashes the strobe in the timing light once. So if the engine is ticking over at 1100rpm, the strobe will flash 550 times a minute (4 stroke engine, remember?). Fantastic. So you're now holding a portable rave lighting rig but how does this help you see the timing of an engine? Well it's simple. You must have seen strobe lights working somewhere - a rave, a stage show - they're used to effectively freeze the position of something in time and space by illuminating it only at a certain point and for a fraction of a second. Shooting a strobe at someone walking in a dark room will result in you seeing them walk as if they were a flip-book animation on a reel of film. This effect is what's used to visualise the timing of your engine. Somewhere on the front of the engine there will be a notch near one of the timing belt pulleys and stamped into the metal next to it will be timing marks in degrees. On the pulley itself there will be a bump, recess or white-painted blob. When you point the timing light down towards the timing belt pulley, remember it fires once for each firing of the cylinders? Each time it fires, the white blob on the pulley should be at the same position in its rotation - the strobe fires once for each ignition spark at which point the mark should be in the same place, and the effect to you is that the whole pulley, timing mark and all, are now standing still in the strobe light. The mark on the pulley will line up with one of the degree marks stamped on the engine, so for example if the white dot always aligns with the 10° mark, it means your engine is firing at 10 degrees before TDC. When you rev the engine, the timing will change so the mark will move closer or further away from the TDC mark depending on how fast the engine is spinning.
Note that in some engines, the two marks are simply painted or stamped, and there are no degree markings. In this case, the marks align when the first piston is exactly at TDC.

Check the timing marks first

After all that, it's worth pointing out that crank timing marks can be way off so it's worth confirming that your TDC marker is actually TDC before pratting about with the timing. It's not as bad now as it used to be, but in the bad old days, Rover V8's were particularly bad for this, with some being as much as 12° off! So how you do confirm your TDC really is TDC? Small cameras, a good set of feeler gauges, some cash and someone who knows what they're doing.

Timing marks on cam belt pulleys

The same timing marks exist stamped into the metal near, and on the pulley on the end the cam. Essentially these marks are used to line up the cam to the correct position when you're changing the timing belt. You have to make sure the engine is rotated to TDC and that the cams are properly aligned too. If you don't, the cams will spin permanently out-of-synch with the engine crank and the engine will run badly, if at all.

Monday, June 28, 2010

Engine characteristics

Engine is a mechanical type. The change of heat energy used to power the drive. , Called the heat engine. This is with several types

The heat engine is a 2.
1, internal combustion engines.
2, the combustion of automotive exterior.
2-engine and can be separated by the table below:

Engines used in cars. Must be small and lightweight. Because of the need to install a limited The capacity to produce a motorcycle and drive around to the other high-use And less noisy. With this engine gas engine petrol or diesel and Rock Lee. An internal combustion engine is the engine currently used in most cars.
Gas engine gasoline engine or Rock Lee.

1st shirt smoking (CYLINDER BLOCK).

Structure made of metal or alloy. Usually have the edge on the edge of the outer wall it helps to increase strength and cooling. Shirt pump includes a cylinder, piston set multiple mobile. And down inside. Top of the cylinder seal was a pump lid. Hermetical, with a pump lid gasket between Smoking and smoking rooms Shirt Cap crankshaft is the lower part of the shirt around the pump cylinder is found by evening.
Cold water and will be found through the channels with the internal lubricant pump shirt also includes a cylinder, piston move up. Mix fuel with air will not leak. And resistance of friction. Between the cylinder piston. Must be low as possible. Therefore, cylinders must be produced efficiently.

2, pump lid (CYLINDER HEAD).

Scum pump is installed above the pump shirt. The hidden room is burning. Cylinder wall and the tongue and swallow. Must be able to tolerate temperatures. And most are to come. From the operation of this engine with pump lid. Is made from cast iron or alloy Aluminum & ???? Pluto The evening performance is better than cast iron sculpture. Cap also includes pump. Cast cold water. Which articulate with cast cold water on the shirt smoking It also cast a cold pump lid. Also cast cold spark plugs.

3-cylinder (PISTON).
– Structure
Mobile piston up and down within cylinder To the duty charged on tempo ID. Compress the explosive mix. And spit out the most important functions of the exhaust cylinder is receiving pressure from the ignition, and this is sent to the crankshaft through the pump shaft. Cylinder was high-temperature heating and always do the most and Must be durable to run around the high over long periods of time. Typically made from cylindrical.
Aluminum alloy. This lightweight and efficient cooling better than other types of materials the name of spare parts. The piston is shown in the illustration below.

– Length of cylinder gap. (Distance between the piston cylinders).
When the piston is heated humid. It will expand slightly. The diameter is increased with this expansion in every period there is a gap between the cylinder piston in place at room temperature (25 g ?, 77, ?) now called the gap length cylinder This gap cylindrical phase shift depending on the type of engine. Period but will usually start from 0.02 to 0.12 mm (0.0008 to 0.0047 inch) cylinder is similar to a slender, small portfolio. Twist, center stage is a split cylinder head is smaller than the bottom of the cylinder slightly. Therefore phase space The piston is the most wide cylinder head. And most narrow at the bottom of the cylinder.

Phase spaces of the piston is measured different This depends on the type of engine repair manual view point to find a measure of gap cylindrical phase.

Period gap is very important plunger. Engine to run correctly and performance is better. If the gap distance is less. Gives no phase gap between the cylinder when the cylinder piston will cause the heating cylinder adjacent to the cylinder. The result can cause the engine to deteriorate. If the gap distance too. In contrast is the pressure caused by the ignition And pressure of gas
The burn is OK. Cause reduced engine performance.

– Piston ring (PISTON RING).
Ring customers will be the bow of the piston ring groove. Outside diameter size of the piston ring is slightly larger than the piston own when combined with the piston in the extended properties of the contractile ring, and it grew to a close attachment to the cylinder wall. Cylindrical metal ring to a high resistance to wear a special kind cast iron plate Projec Emie Pluto That will not scrape the piston ring is a trace amount of cylinder piston ring to vary by type of engine. The number is usually three to four balls, one ring per cylinder.

Piston ring has three major functions is The act prevents air leakage from the fuel and the gap between the piston cylinder. Rooms with crankshaft Rhythm during the implosion and explosion are two functions that prevent the lubricating oil on the side of the piston cylinder. Not to leak out into the room survived burn. The last page is Heat transfer from piston to cylinder wall. To piston cooling.

1) ring compression
This ring prevents leakage of compressed air and fuel mix and the gas generated by burning room packed between strokes. Point and not to explode into the room number of the crankshaft ring is compressed depends on the type of engine. Generally a child will have a piston ring which pumped two “ring on the recorder” and “ring-packed second” ring is compressed, the portfolio characteristics. Therefore, the lower edge of it touched the cylinder wall.
Design such as this to occur as close to the touch. Between ring and cylinder. It is also a sweep oil from the cylinder walls effectively.

Piston ring is the number “1″ or “2″ on it the number “1″ means that Ring and on the number “2″ is the second ring assembly, so this number must face up to the top

2) sweep the oil ring.
Oil ring sweep sweep Cause a film of oil needed to lubricate the surface between piston And cylinder wall. And sweep the excess oil. To prevent the oil drop to ring in the room burn oil sometimes called a sweep for the third ring are two types together. Oil-ring sweep includes the three-piece This three-piece is used.

(2.1) Total
Oil-ring sweep includes the known oil provide feedback. That size is around. And oil is known to be in accordance with this sweeping oil ring groove section that is sweeping over the ring by the fluid into the scourge known these And flow back into the interior of the cylinder.

(2.2), three-piece
Three-piece oil ring sweep includes. Sweeping side plates. To sweep out the excess oil, and the pressure plate to sweep close to the side.
Ring ring groove and cylinder oil sweep a three-piece. To act as a total

(2.3) spaces mouth ring
Piston ring to grow in the same manner as when the hot cylinder With this piston ring has a cut mouth. And when combined within the cylinder will be the appropriate spaces, called gap mouth ring Phase spaces will vary depending on the type of machine. But typically in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 mm (0.008 to 0.020 inch) at normal temperature.

If the gap distance is too large mouth ring. Will cause the engine is pumped out of phase if the mouth is too narrow ring. Engine can be made. Will be late because of the ring. Because of heat expansion. Make ring bent. Walls made out of cylinders.

4, pump shaft (CONNECTING ROD).
Shaft with piston pump with crankshaft And are transmitted to the crankshaft end of the pump shaft with a small cylinder called a late end to the remaining crankshaft called late in the crankshaft to rotate at speeds in the end. Cause high temperatures. To prevent. ? deterioration caused by heat by the end of it consists of large bearings. The oil and some
This surge of oil from known oil to the piston within the cylinder to cool.
Assembly to be coupled to pump shaft. Otherwise the oil will make caulk (the side of the piston. RIM draw ?? bound directly to the prevention of errors. Pump shaft is marked in each set, the operation is that different types of machines so as to make inspection Repair Guide for detailed

5th crankshaft (CRANKSHAFT).
Drive to drive wheels of the vehicle. By drawing down the shaft of the pump and the rotation of the crankshaft crankshaft receive power from the shaft and piston pump spin speeds for this reason it is made from carbon steel, high-mix tips. a high resistance to wear.

Structure of the crankshaft of the illustrations below.

Future, the woman is supported by bearings crankshaft crankshaft’s room and crankshaft rotate around the Future is the Future, woman, each woman has the arm of the crankshaft. The crankshaft is installed on the crankshaft to the center axis of the skew axis in the form of encumbrance. To reduce the unbalanced force of the crankshaft rotation. While working on the engine crankshaft is known for a lubricant oil to the Future girl. Pump shaft bearings. Pump shaft and fasteners.

6 wheel power assist (FLY WHEEL).
Momentum wheels do help with the heavy cast iron with ?? Doc, late, with the crankshaft. Transmission for vehicles that are used in a regular rhythm of the engine explosion point. The piston is transmitted to the crankshaft only single strokes. Perry that the addition of the tempo, rhythm this other is lost due to friction wheel inertia force will continue to help force rotation (Inertia) during the other strokes apart from the explosion strokes. Rotate the crankshaft to continue to also make the engine work smoothly with the surrounding teeth fertility cycle the edges of the wheel idle wind power will help tackle the teeth of the drive motor start fertility. While starting up the engine. Gears used in automotive automatic power assist wheel is changed, a textile, Convergent Counsel

“The loss of inertia” refers to the loss is especially resonant in the compressed This occurs while the piston is moved up pressure compressed air and fuel mix.
Crankshaft bearings.
1, General Chapter lecture.
Crankshaft has been doing serious strength. (Gas caused by the ignition, piston And rotate at high speeds. For this reason, bearings needed to support the use of the crankshaft and woman, and Future oil to prevent stickiness death and loss of stiffness.
2 types of bearings.
Crankshaft and other parts that rotate at speeds and under a weighty burden to use support-bearings. The bearings-this Features good tolerance to wear. Performance and prevent contamination death. Bearings cortex consists of a metal. And surfaces of bearings made of metal type. Experience with a crankshaft for a block of metal shell to protect bearings from rotating bearings.
This has produced a many – Each type of meat is the material surface with different functions around the other to a metal white metal Clevestig fat Or aluminum.

Bearings each number is set bearings. To change the bearings will need to change the bearings to match the number of numbers that are changing the way the original number selected bearings. To study the repair manual.
1) the white metal.
Metal white metal ????????? zinc coated with tin or lead coated materials. It is seized of the island. But because it has less strength. Therefore often be used in engines has been not much
2) metal Clevestig fat
UK, fat metal surface is coated with copper metal. And lead, which is mixed with more strength and resistance to hunting as well as the white metal. But the island has been confiscated poor. Metal, UK, with a fat engine crafty And heavy load.
3) aluminum metal.
Surface aluminum metal which has a surface aluminum Tin and mixed mantle. Effective resistance to wear. And cooling better than the white metal and the metal Clevestig fat which are used with gasoline engines.

3, the gap of the oil bearings.
Face contact between the bearings on the crankshaft to rotate the need to send a sufficient amount of oil to lubricate the polish to prevent direct metal to metal ???. Therefore need a suitable gap between the bearings on crankshaft Enough oil to create a film of oil. Gap is called Oil gap. The size will vary according to type of engine but the way around.

Size is from 0.02 to 0.06 mm (0.0008 to 0.0024 inch)

Mechanisms tongue

4 strokes engine coupled with packed strokes strokes strokes suck explosive spitting exhaust strokes. But work is only 2 strokes of the tongue is attached rhythm and spew exhaust steam. Therefore, the mechanism design tongue To such work is 1 Rotate the cam shaft to run word of ID. Tongue and exhaust cam shaft to the second round will be 1 full duty work.
Flywheel ?? Times cherished possession. Will be combined in one end of the crankshaft. The flywheel ?? Times cherished possession of the cam shaft will seize on the end of the cam shaft. Exhaust cam shaft with the crankshaft is driving the belt. ID is the cam shaft drive gear that is the stickiness with ID and exhaust cam shaft (note from the picture above) the number of flywheel teeth ?? Times cherished possession cam shaft. Are many.
2 times the flywheel ?? Times cherished possession crankshaft cam shaft is rotated around the crankshaft rotate 1 Round 2 of the tongue will work balance And correct the rhythm of work. Will make the engine run efficiently. Tongue mechanism will vary depending on the engine in the system. We will illustrate the following
1st gear-independent and cherished possession.

Tongue-gear drive mechanism Times cherished possession. Used engine with a mechanical pump lid tongue beyond the cam shaft, however, the use of gear pump shirt Times cherished possession. The work will take more than noise-chain Times cherished possession by this method is not a word driver is used in modern gasoline engines.

2-chain Times cherished possession.

Mechanism driving tongue-chain, Tai cherished possession. This in-use engines over the cam shaft wall and pump cam shaft wall above the double pump. The cam shaft drive chain will be cherished possession Times. And is a lubricating oil. Tenseness of the chain will be adapted by the chains and set. The chains help reduce the pressure pulsation of the chain. Cam shaft to a chain drive is quieter than a gear and really cherished possession. Making are used when
Not too long ago.

3-belt, really cherished possession.

Belt drive mechanism, a tongue-Times, cherished possession. A cam shaft drive belt is a tooth replacement using chain Times cherished possession. Belt is quieter running chain. And do not require lubrication. Or adjust the belt tenseness also has less weight. How to drive a different word for this reason the engine is currently used in most

7th to sink oil ?? Stores (OILPAN).
Basin oil mentioned in a final order of the parts of a machine.

The bottom of the shirt called pump crankshaft The basin is an oil and stickiness is coordinating with liquid gasket or rubber gasket or packing paper. Basin oil to a steel plate. Block plan, and act ??? oil. Sink to the bottom when the car is not on the level and ??? speak out when the brake pedal in the immediate The gas station can be made to send oil to lubricate at all times. The oil will be filmed in the movie section of the basin bottom.
Basic principles of the engine 4 strokes

Resonant charge ID.
The rhythmic cadence of the air. And fuel into the cylinders, which are pulling tongues ID exhaust opening while closing word. As the piston moved down. Vacuum will occur in the cylinder and the mix of air and fuel is driven into the cylinder by atmospheric pressure.
Tempo jam
This is the rhythm, tempo of air and fuel is pumped. Both tongue and palate exhaust vapor tight engine while moving from bottom dead center to dead center will be pumped on the mix makes the pressure and temperature are increased to the point of explosion crankshaft one full rotation. when moving it around to center on death.
Cadency point explosion.
This rhythm is the rhythm engine powered car in production is due before the piston is moving to zero in on death strokes recorder will spark the spark plugs fire to the mix of air and fuel resulting in burn insurgency quickly. cause the gas pressure cylinder pressure to force a draw down.
This is the machine is motoring!
Spew exhaust strokes.
The rhythm of this gas will be burned exclusion from cylinders. Exhaust open and tongue out from the piston is moved up dead center to bottom dead center. Driving exhaust gases from the cylinder when the piston top dead center and moving it will start to charge ID rhythm again. Described from this point until the crankshaft rotate twice. And the engine will be a fully working routine. Quaternary cadency Cadency ID is attached packed ingredients. Explode and spit out the exhaust. This is the basic work of the four engine strokes.
Lubrication system.
Engine consists of a moving metal parts in many parts, each of which will combine the decidedly Those parts include pump shaft and crankshaft parts
Mechanisms tongue
When the engine starting rotation. Friction between these parts causes are job losses erode As well as the stickiness of the engine. Due to heat from the grate. Therefore, lubrication is sent to those parts. To prevent unwanted symptoms of them. The lubricant was sent pay.
The engine’s lubrication system that Picture below shows the mechanism of lubrication while the spin axis.

Role of lubricant
1) will create a coating of lubricant oil over the surface of metal joint To prevent exposure. Direct metal It also reduces traction to occur least And to prevent wear. And the heat.
2) allows parts of the engine oil cooling.
3) enables the prevention of oil leakage between the piston And a cylinder.
4) bring oil from the engine grime.
5) oil prevent parts from corrosion.

Type of lubrication system.
Oil is sent to pay the moving parts of the engine such as a multiple-pressure-??? as a whip and sprinkle with a pressure ??? together. The only way a pressure is applied to the motor current. In-pressure lubrication system. Oil pressure is caused by a gas station and send forces to the movement of engine parts.

The flow path of a lubricating system pressure as shown in the illustration below.

Gas Stations.
Station suck up oil from oil basin. Make the oil pressure up and down to the movement of engine parts. Sometimes ??? will be driving the crankshaft and the sometimes eccentric shaft or belt to get a rude filter will be installed at the entrance of the petrol station to filter out dirt, oil
Gear-pump-pump and call Soi? Pump is a two-to

Basic Understanding Why Your Car’s Engine Misfires

Your vehicle’s engine goes through a combustion process thousands of times each minute. Air and fuel are sent to each cylinder’s combustion chamber where the mixture is compressed. Coil voltage travels through a spark plug that is located at the top of each chamber. The spark plug ignites the compressed mixture, which provides the necessary energy to move your vehicle down the road. When a misfire occurs, the event affects your car’s performance, efficiency, and overall drivability.

This article will explore the reasons your engine might suffer a misfire. We’ll take a look at problems involving a loss of spark, unbalanced air-fuel mixture, and compression leaks. I’ll explain the factors that can contribute to each of these issues.

Loss Of Spark

A loss of spark can be due to fouled spark plugs, bad wires, or a distributor cap that has developed a crack. Plugs should normally be replaced every 40,000 miles. Even those that are advertised as being capable of lasting 100,000 miles should be replaced long before that marker arrives. Besides expiring due to normal use, oil deposits can build on the electrodes, preventing voltage from jumping the gap.

Spark plug wires are critical because a fouled wire will prevent voltage from reaching the plug. If that happens, the plug will be unable to ignite the compressed air-fuel mix in the associated cylinder’s combustion chamber.

If the distributor cap is cracked, the voltage may be unable to travel properly between the rotor tip and the terminals. Here too, this can prevent the plug from receiving the voltage necessary for ignition.

Unbalanced Air-Fuel Mixture

For several reasons, the air-fuel mixture within the combustion chamber can be too lean. When this occurs, there is an insufficient amount of gasoline to provide an efficient burn. This might be due to a fuel pump that is failing, a fuel injector that has formed an obstruction in the nozzle, or even a leaking exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve. Each can prevent sufficient fuel from reaching the cylinder’s combustion chamber.

There may be also be cases in which the mixture is too rich. Rather than an insufficient amount of gasoline preventing an efficient burn, there is too much in the chamber. This problem is far less common than a lean mix. When it occurs, it is usually due to a leaking injector.

Compression Leak

If a given cylinder’s chamber is suffering from a loss of compression, that means it is losing a portion of the air-fuel mixture before it can be ignited. This problem can usually be narrowed down to two potential root causes: an exhaust valve that has formed a leak or a blown head gasket. If you’re able to identify misfiring within multiple cylinders (and you have confirmed your spark plugs are fine), the issue is likely the head gasket.

A loss of compression can be confirmed by performing a leakdown test. It is a simple test that will help you identify whether compression is being lost through an exhaust valve with a deteriorating ring. This is a test you can do on your own rather than hiring a mechanic for the job. Most auto supply stores sell a special gauge that is inserted into the suspected cylinder’s spark plug hole.

Misfires can be serious. If you’re driving a small 4-cylinder car, a single misfiring cylinder can reduce your engine’s power by 25 percent. You’ll feel it shaking at idle. If the problem is severe, your engine may even stall. Even if your engine has eight or more cylinders, a steady misfire can reduce its fuel efficiency and impact its overall performance. Moreover, your car will fail an emissions test.

If your engine is misfiring, test the spark, air-fuel mixture, and perform a leakdown test for compression leaks. With a little time and effort, you can successfully narrow down and fix the root cause.